This opens up debate on just how big a population we want and the kind of island we want. Increasing urbanisation and its pros and cons etc. Sustainability of pensions/, of the environment etc.
Is a decreasing population a good or bad thing? Is increasing/decreasing productivity the key or even possible ?
As mentioned on another thread, while birth rates are a little below replacement in the long term (1.9 or so), our young-biased population means that we’ll see substantial natural population increase for the foreseeable future, short of mass emigration or a one-child policy. I don’t think falling population is even something that needs to be on the agenda for a few decades.
Actually, even with the one child policy, birth-rates in China didn’t really start falling for over a decade; this was again due to the age profile of the population.